Ottoman rule of Greece, lasted almost 400 years, from the mid-15th century before the successful Greek War of Independence in 1821.

The Greek War of Independence, also referred to as the Greek Revolution, led to the establishment of the Kingdom of Greece and confirmed by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832.

The belligerents involved were Greek revolutionaries, the United Kingdom, France and Russian Empire from the Ottoman Empire and Egyptian Khedivate.

Tourkokratia (Turkish Rule)

The outbreak of the war saw mass executions, the destruction of churches and looting of Greek properties through the entire Ottoman Empire with the most brutal atrocities occurring with the Constantinople massacre of 1821.

While the Western European countries flourished from the artistic developments of the Renaissance and the intellectual developments of the Enlightenment, Greece languished under Tourkokratia.

During those dark years of occupation, the church and their faith helped the oppressed Greeks to retain their Hellenic identity, language and culture.

A Step Back in Time

Three major wars are defing moments of Greek history and Western culture.

1. The Persian Wars (500-448 BC)

The Battles of Marathon, Thermopylae and Salamis has resonated throughout history as a symbol of courage against an enemy often times superior in numbers.

Greece was the birthplace of classical civilization's greatest artistic, literary, architectural, scientific, philosophical and sporting achievements that have become foundations of western thought and culture.

Had the Persians won, they would have conquered the others of Greece and then invaded the European continent, thus preventing Western civilization's growth.

2. The Wars of Alexander the Great (331 - 323-BC)

The Persian kings tried to conquer Greece repeatedly between 500 to 448 BC.

Ultimately, it had been the Greeks who conquered Persia, when Alexander the Great defeated the Persian Empire through the 330s.

The Hellenistic Age is characterized by the spreading of the Greek language and culture, where Greek art, literature and architecture flourished and Greek became the international language golf warszawa.

3. Byzantine Empire

Constantinople the "Queen of Cities" was to early Middle Ages what Athens and Rome have been in classical times.

On May 29, 1453, Constantinople was overrun by 160,000 Ottoman forces.

Constantine XI defended Constantinople with a force of only 9,000 for seven weeks.

Finally, the Ottomans breached the walls of the Christian capital and the fantastic Byzantine Empire ended.

The Ottomans besieged and took Athens in 1458, the Peloponnese in 1460, Trebizond in Asia Minor, in 1461 and the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos in 1522.


The Greek origin of so much of Western civilization's classical heritage, brought overwhelming sympathy for Greek independence throughout Europe which gave rise to "philhellenism" (the love of Greece and its history).

Classicists and romantics of early 19th-century, envisioned the revival of the Golden Age of Greece through independence.

Hundreds of European aristocrats and veterans of the Napoleonic Wars and Americans joined in the Greek struggle for freedom.

Lord Byron, probably the most celebrated philhellene of all, gave his name and his wealth to simply help the Greek people.